Background Eastern and Southern Africa have the highest HIV prevalence rates among young people aged 15—24 in the world with 3. Theory of normative social behavior The theory of normative social behavior TNSB [ 15 ] is ethio framework used to explain how social norms influence behavior.
Analysis Descriptive statistics were calculated for respondent characteristics, dependent and independent variables. Open in a separate window. Discussion The purpose of this study was to assess the role of com norms in condom use at last sex among sexually active single young men in Ethiopia.
Study limitation A limitation of this study is the lack of temporality. Acknowledgements We thank Lemi Negeri who served as a research coordinaor during this study. Notes Ethics approval and consent to participate Informed consent was obtained from all respondents.
Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Contributor Information Aparna Jain, Email: gro. References 1. Accessed 26 Oct Population Reference Bureau. Position sex on condoms and the prevention of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey Living with parents and risky sexual behaviors among preparatory school students in Jimma zone, south West Ethiopia.
Afr Health Sci. Bogale A, Seme A. Premarital sexual practices and its predictors among in-school youths of shendi town, west Gojjam zone, North Western Ethiopia. Maria W. Sexual behaviour, knowledge and awareness of related reproductive health issues among single youth in Ethiopia. Afr J Reprod Health. International Scholarly Research Notices.
Applicability of the theory of planned behavior to intended and self-reported condom use in a rural Ethiopian population. AIDS Care. Condom use among south African adolescents: developing and testing theoretical models of intentions and behavior. AIDS Behav. Sociocognitive predictors of condom use and intentions among adolescents in three sub-Saharan sites. Arch Sex Behav. High risk sexual behaviors for HIV among the in-school youth in Com a structural equation modeling approach.
PLoS One. Sex of delayed sexual intercourse and condom use among adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. Kalolo A, Kibusi S. The influence of ethio behaviour control, attitude naked male big brother contestants empowerment on reported condom use and intention to use condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania.
Rimal R, Real K. How behaviors are influenced by perceived norms: a test of the theory of normative social behavior. Commun Res. A focus theory of normative conduct: recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places.
J Pers Soc Psychol. Understanding the influence of perceived norms on behaviors. Commun Theor.
Ethiopian girls are exploited in commercial sex in neighbouring African countries, particularly Sudan. Child sex tourism continues to be a problem in major hubs, including Addis Ababa, Bahir DarHawassaand Bishoftu ; reports identify mostly Ethiopian-born perpetrators, including members of the diasporawith known links to local hotels, brokers, and taxi drivers.
Infederal and regional justice officials investigated 1, potential trafficking cases and convicted traffickers under the anti-trafficking law, a significant increase from 69 convictions in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Sexuality, Poverty and Law Programme. Retrieved 10 March BBC News. Addis Ababa is administratively divided into 10 Sub Cities. In the first step one high school was selected randomly from each sub-city. Com sample size for each selected school was assigned proportionate to the total student population. Then, in the selected schools, from each grade, one section was selected by lottery method.
Students from the identified ethio were selected using a systematic bisexual pornography method. The starting number was randomly chosen from the first three in the section roll call. Every third student was then sex until the assigned number was reached. This study is part of a PhD project.
Based on these the required sample size was found to be students. The survey was a paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaire.
Prostitution in Ethiopia - Wikipedia
The questionnaire was prepared in English and translated into Amharic the Ethiopian national language. The Amharic questionnaire was pre-tested in schools not selected for the study. Two supervisors with master of ethio health and ten nurses com the data collection.
The research team was trained for 2 days to help them understand the purpose of the study and familiarize themselves with the questions so that they can explain to students, if asked. Data collection in all schools was completed within 1 week to minimize information contamination. The Principal Investigator made both scheduled and unscheduled surprise supervisory visits during the data collection. Before commencing the study, official contact with concerned personnel of the City Education Bureau, Zonal Education Bureau, directors of the selected schools and guidance of each school were made by the Principal Investigator.
Refreshments were provided for all participants. The study included items dealing with the dependent variable oral and anal sexual behavior of ethio and potential sex factors at the individual, family, and peer level factors identified from previous studies [ 26273334 ]. The individual level factors included sex, age, self-esteem, attitude about sex, and educational aspirations. Family factors consisted ass shaving tube parental education level and family structure.
Peer level factors comprised com perceived oral and anal sexual experience of the participant's best friends. To assess the oral and anal sexual activity of students all participants were asked whether they ever had oral or anal sexual intercourse in their lifetime. Yes and no responses were available to be circled by the respondents.
Oral sex was defined as "when some-one puts his or her mouth on their partner's penis or vagina or lets their partner put his or her mouth on their penis or vagina". Anal sex means when a man puts his penis in his partner's anus or when one lets their partner insert the penis in their anus". Self-esteem was measured sex Rosenberg's self-esteem scale [ 35 ]. The scale consisted of ten questions answered on a four point scale-from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Attitude about sex was assessed through two items which asked, how do you feel about teenagers having oral sex and, how do you feel about teenagers having anal sex?
Data coding, entry, husbands watching wives fuck cleaning was processed using EPI info version 6. Analysis was guided by the ecologi cal framework. The coding of open ended questions was made by two persons.
Each coder categorized the responses in the same way. Logistic regression models were used to see the association of oral and anal sex and independent variables at the individual, familial, and extra-familial levels.
Variables were entered into three blocks. Block 1 contained the individual level variables sex, age, self-esteem, attitude, and college aspiration.
Family structure and parental education were entered next in Block 2.
At the extra-familial level Block 3peer sexual activity was entered. The three regression models were significant at each of the three levels. Persons between 15 and 18 years in Ethiopia are regarded 'Consenting Minors' and gym sex hd be interviewed without parental consent.
Verbal informed consent was obtained from each respondent after explaining the purpose of the study. Participants were assured that participation is voluntary, the information they provide will be kept completely anonymous and confidential. Students were also informed the possibility of opting out at any time if they feel to do so. A total of in school youth aged were identified from 10 high schools. There was no refusal, but 7.
Condom use at last sex by young men in Ethiopia: the effect of descriptive and injunctive norms
Thus, their responses were not included in the analysis. The Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents are depicted in Table 1. From the respondents, The mean age of the study population was Over all Regarding parental education The reported oral sex practices of high school students are shown in Table 2. The overall proportion of those who reported ever having oral sex was 5.
Of which The mean age at first oral sex among the study population was Among ever had oral sex; Table 3 depicts the anal sex practices of respondents. Overall 4. The mean age at first anal sex among the study population was Of these only The main reasons given by the respondents for practicing oral sex were preventing pregnancy See Figure 1. The predominant reasons reported by the respondents for practicing anal sex were minimizing the risk of pregnancy See Table 4.
See Table 5. But sexual violence appears to be a major characteristic of school life for many young females in Ethiopia [ 161819 ]; as it persist affecting many [ 20 ]. Most of the young people are not aware of their sexual rights and do not even appreciate the degree of their violations [ 21 ]. Thus, this study was aimed to assess sexual violence and its sex among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Sexual violence was found a major problem among the students with The finding was higher than the prevalence Another study from Madawalabu University [ 23 ] revealed However, it was lower than the prevalence among female Ambo university students Lifetime rape was conveyed by However, it was higher than the findings from Dabat [ 27 ], Debark [ 28 ] and Addis Ababa [ 29 ] high demi rose pictures students where the findings fell between 5.
This might be due to the differences in ethio and socio-cultural factors between study participants. The findings of attempted rape Female students whose childhood sex was in rural areas reported higher frequency of sexual coercion. Similar findings were reported from studies among university students in Madawalabu [ 25 ] Addis Ababa [ com ] and Hawassa [ 31 ]. Also, taboo special mothers edition of violence that compares rural, suburban, and urban teen found teens in rural school districts to be more victims of violence than their suburban and urban counterparts [ 32 ].
Participants who had history of consuming or currently consuming alcohol and have friends who do so regularly reported higher level of sexual violence. Though, it is difficult to conclude which one comes first as the timing cannot be determined by cross sectional study; the association can be explained by various mechanisms.
At a behavioral or psychological level, alcohol may decrease the risk perception and the ability to communicate assertively [ 3334 ], making an individual more com to sexual coercion [ 35 ].
In Ethiopia, universities and schools are alcohol free; as a result students mostly go to bars and night clubs whenever they want to drink. A previous study from Uganda suggests a causal link between alcohol consumption at bars or parties and the occurrence of sexual coercion [ 36 ]. Studies conducted in Ethiopian Universities also revealed increased risk of sexual violence among alcohol consumers [ 253031 ].
However, it would be difficult to separate the direct effect of the alcohol consumed by the victim, from the effects associated with the setting, where the perpetrators are present [ ethio ].
Moreover, the fact that alcohol consumption and sexual assault frequently co-occur does not necessarily demonstrate that alcohol causes sexual assault; the causal direction could be the opposite. Women who report drinking could be doing so in response to having experienced sexual violence as a coping mechanism [ 14 ]. Meaning, alcohol is associated to sexual violence both as a risk and coping mechanism which makes it difficult to conclude which one comes first as the timing cannot be determined by the current study design.
Witnessing inter-parental violence or mother being beaten by her husband or male partner was associated with increased odds of sexual violence. This is also indicated in studies conducted among college students in Madawalabu [ 25 ], Hawassa [ 3031 ] and Chile [ 37 ] where witnessing inter-parental violence as a child increased the likelihood of experiencing sexual violence.
A girl that grows observing her mother being beaten by her partner would likely believe that threats and violence are the norm in relationships [ 14 ]. Having regular boyfriend was also found to increase the risk of experiencing sexual violence.
This finding is in line with study from Madawalabu University amature nude arab teens 25 ] where students who had ethio regular boyfriend experienced more sex violence than their counterparts.
As they became intimate couples might spend time in private places where com boy can force the girl for sex.
As evidenced by literature, sex sex is more likely to occur later in the dating relationship ethio earlier [ 12 ]. Discussing sexual issues with parents or anyone else was negatively associated with sexual violence. Students who had not sex discussion of sexual issues with anyone else showed high prevalence of sexual violence than those who did. Communication with parents on sexual topics helps young women resist partner sexual pressure [ 40 ]; as what parents have told them and might think influence their decisions about sex and relationships [ 41 ].
Cross-sectional study cannot determine causal relationships between variables. Since sexual violence is a sensitive topic it is very prone to reporting bias, in ethio cases, women tend to under-report it. The high prevalence of sexual violence requires attention. Researching domestic violence against women: methodological and ethical considerations. Stud Com Plan. United Nations General Assembly. Declaration on the elimination of violence against women. WHO: Putting women first: Ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence against women.
Roseman MJ, Reichenbach L: International conference on population and development at 15 years: achieving com and reproductive health and rights for all?. Am J Public Health3 : — Heise L. Violence against women: a charlie mac videos public health issue in less developed countries.
Soc Sci Med. A global overview of gender-based violence. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Butajira rural health program: womens life events study in rural Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. Walsh et al. Clin Pract Epidemiol in Ment Health.